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- Has been effectively used as an adjunct to ocular surface lubricants in the treatment of dry-eye disorders by:
- Preventing tear drainage
- Increasing natural tear film volume
- Decreasing tear film osmolarity
- Prolonging the effect of instilled artificial lubrication drops
- Several ways may be chosen to close the punctum:
- Lower puncta are usually closed first.
- Reversible punctal occlusion may be achieved by punctal plugs insertion. The plugs are usually made of silicone material.
- Irreversible or permanent punctal occlusion may be achieved by cauterization of the punctum.
- Side effects:
- Plug extrusion.
- Permanent punctal occlusion due to tissue scarring or plug migration into the canaliculus.
- Spontaneous punctum recanalization after cauterization of the punctum is possible.