Nonproliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (NPDR)
- Most common form of diabetic retinopathy.
- After 20 years of the disease, almost 100% of patients with type 1 and 60% of type 2 have some degree of retinopathy.
- Microaneurysm, intraretinal hemorrhages, cotton wool spots and hard exudates
- Venous tortuosity or beading, capillary dropout and intraretinal microvascular abnormalities (IRMA)
- Increasing formation of microaneurysm leads to increased vascular permeability of the retinal capillaries and result in retinal edema particularly in the macular area
Fluorescein Angiography Demonstrates
- Scattered hyperfluorescence dots of microaneurysms which can be associated with minimal dye leakage
- Spots of hypofluorescense in the area of hemorrhages and exudates
- Areas of irregular capillary pattern or capillary closure
- Improve patients education and understanding about the disease process.
- Control of blood glucose, cholesterol and blood pressure.
- Photocoagulation in severe nonproliferative retinopathy.
- Annual check-up 5 years after onset for patient aged less than 30 years old, and at time of diagnosis for patients aged 30 and older.
- Frequency of scheduled check-up depends on the status of the retinopathy.