- The formation of thick, coarse, dense membrane which causes marked distortion of the macula that may sometimes elevates the fovea off the pigment epithelium. (puckering the macula)
- Markedly decreased vision or loss of central vision
- Central photopsia or macropsia
- Thick, opaque membrane may obscure the visibility of the macula
- Foveal ectopia
- Commonly causes dragging of the paramacular retinal vessels
- Chronic cases may be complicated with retinal pigment epithelium changes, retinal vascular leakage, macular hole, macular edema, hemorrhage, foveal cyst or choroidal neovascularization.
- Fluorescein angiogram demonstrates:
- Dragged perifoveal vessel
- Dye leakage
vitreoretinal surgery should be considered when significant visual reduction (BCVA of < 20/50) has occurred.
A case of macular pucker that demonstrates:
- Marked striation of the inner retinal layer in the perifoveal area
- Foveal distortion or ectopia
- Dragging and increasing tortuosity of the paramacular retinal vessels