Age-related Macular Degeneration

Age-related macular degeneration demonstrating areas of pigmentary changes and drusen
  • Chronic degenerative disease that primarily affects choriocapillaris, Bruch's membrane, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptor cells.
  • Most common cause of irreversible visual loss over age of 65 year in Western world.
  • 20-30% of patients affected over the age of 75.
  • AMD is classified into two categories:
    • Non-exudative (dry or atrophic )
    • Exudative (wet or neovascular)
  • Exudative AMD has a prevalence rate of 1.2% and dry AMD has a prevalence of 15.6% among adults aged 43 and older.
  • Nonexudative AMD is characterized by macular drusen, clumps of pigments in the outer retina and eventually progress to geographic atrophy of RPE and choriocapillaris which is the main cause of severe loss of central vision.
  • Critical signs of exudative or neovascular AMD include subretinal choroidal neovascular membrane and other associated manifestations such as RPE detachment or tear, subretinal hemorrhages, subretinal disciform scarring and vitreous hemorrhage.