Disclaimer and Terms of Use


The information contained in Digital Reference of Ophthalmology is presented solely for informational purposes for medical education. Although every effort was made to provide accurate and reliable information, the materials presented herein are not guaranteed to be correct, complete, comprehensive or current. The information contained in Digital Reference of Ophthalmology is not intended to be used in any way for the purposes of providing medical diagnosis or treatment. The information should not be considered comprehensive, and you must not rely upon this information to suggest a course of treatment for a particular individual. It is not intended to be instructional for medical diagnosis or treatment by non-physician site visitors. It should not be used in place of a visit, call, consultation or the advice of a user's personal physician or other qualified health care provider. Likewise, physician and other qualified health care providers are encouraged to confirm through use of other sources (e.g. textbooks, medical journals, specialty physician consultation). 

The information contained in Digital Reference of Ophthalmology does not necessarily represent the proper diagnosis or treatment nor does it reflect the opinion of or treatments offered at the Edward S. Harkness Eye Institute. You should not act or rely on any information contained on this site without first seeking the advice of an Ophthalmologist. Those who follow diagnostic or treatment guidelines found on this website, if any, do so at their own discretion and liability. Under no circumstances shall we be liable for any damages resulting from use of images or information found on this website.

Terms of Use

The entire contents of Digital Reference of Ophthalmology are the property of the Edward S. Harkness Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology of Columbia University. Any redistribution, retransmission or republication of any copyrighted material is strictly prohibited without the express written consent of the copyright owner. You may use these images in lectures or teaching of trainees provided that you agree not to change or delete any proprietary notices from materials downloaded from Digital Reference of Ophthalmology and do not receive compensation for the use of these images.